Tchakravartin (S), Cakravartin (S)→ , . Tên cha Đại Thông Trí Thắng. Là vị vỉ pháp lý mà cai trị khắp hoàn cầu.
Tchandala (S), Candala (S)→ bị coi là hạ tiện trong xãhội Ấn . Nam gọi là (Candala), nữ gọi là .
Tchandrasuryapradīpa-Buddha (S), Candrasurya-pradīpa-Buddha (S)→ Name of a Buddha or Tathāgata → Tên một vị Phật hay .
Tchandra-surya-pradīpa-buddha (S), Candra-surya-pradīpa-buddha (S)→ Name of a Buddha or Tathāgata. → Tên một vị Phật hay .
Tchandra-vimala-surrya-prabhā-saśrī (S), Candra-vimala-surrya-prabhā-saśrī (S)→ Name of a Buddha or Tathāgata. → Tên một vị Phật hay .
Tch’an-tsoung Tchou-chou (C)→ Một trong hai của Trung hoa: và do chư tổ và Tàu do gom góp trong nhiều từ nhà Tống, Nguyên, Minh đến Thanh.
Tchaturmahāradja (S), Caturmahāradja (S)→ Catumamahārājukas (S), Catur-mahārājakyikas (S) → → Bốn vị cai quản bốn miền (33 cảnh trời) thuộc quyền vua : – : cai quản phương đông. – : cai quản phương tây. – : cai quản phương nam. – : cai quản phương bắc.
Tchatur-mahārājakyikas (S), Caturmahārāja-kyikas (S) →→ Xem Catumamaharajukas.
Tch’eng-cheu Tsung (C)→ Name of a school or branch. → Tên một .
Tchenn-yen Tsung (C)→ Name of a school or branch. → Tên một .
Tchenn-yen-tsung (C)→ Name of a school or branch. → Cũng gọi là hay Du chỉ tông. Ngài (Vajrabodhi) ở Tàu năm 719, sau ngài (Kobo-Daishi) truyền qua Nhật năm 804.
Tchenrezig (T)→ See Avalokiteśvara.
Tchenrezigs (T)→ See Tchenrezig.
Tcheu-K’ai (C)→ → Name of a monk. → (531-597) , thọ 67 tuổi, Ngài tu tại núi , chuyên trì .
Tcheu-Kai (C)→ See Tcheu-K’ai.
Tcheu-K’ien (C)→ Name of a monk. → Tên một vị sư.
Tchouang Tseu (C).
Te (C) Ðức → in Taoism, te is physical power, the power of nature, the cosmos, man, and everything. in Confucianism, te also means compassion (ren). Compassion and power are important together.
Teacher of Gods and Men→ One of the ten epithets of the Buddha.
Teacher of Omniscience→ An epithet of the Buddha.
Tedjas (S)→ Oai thế và .
Teh Shao (C)→ Tokusho (J) → Name of a monk. → Tên một vị sư .
Teh-shan Hsuan chien (C)→ Tokusan Senkan (J) → Name of a monk. → Tên một vị sư. của Long-đàm Sùng-tín (782-865).
Teh-shan Mi (C) Đức Sơn Mật.
Teihatsu (J)→ Shaving → Xem Mundana.
Teisho (J) → Orally transmitting the Dharma in the form of a lecture. This is often a formal commentary on a koan, by a master. it is supposed to be non-dualistic, which helps to distinguish it from a Dharma talk.
Teja (S) Lửa → Fire → Hỏa → Trong: – đất (prithin) – nước (apas) – gió (vayu) – lửa (teja) → → Tên một đứa trẻ sinh ra trong đám lửa.
Tejo-dhātu (S)→ Fire element → See Paca-mahābhūta.
Tejorāśi (S)→ , , , → Name of a Bodhisattva. → Tên một vị .
Tejorāśyusnisaḥ (S)→ Usnisatejorasi (S) → , → Name of a Bodhisattva. → Tên một vị .
tek pa chen po (T)→ See Mahāyāna.
tek pa chung wa (T)→ See Hīnayāna.
tel wa gye (T) Tám đường→ See Eight freedoms.
Temple Chùa → Pagoda →, (đạo và đồ ăn chung một chỗ), (đạo và đồ ăn là hai chỗ). Có 10 danh từ người ta dùng để chùa, gồm: -tự – – – – – – – – xứ – thân cận xứ.
Tempyo (J)→ See T’ien-P’ing.
Ten acts of virtue→ Ten acts of virtue for purifying the First Stage: Faith, compassion, love, abandonment, perseverance, thorough knowledge of the principles of truth, guiding sentient beings, feeling of shame, making offerings to Buddhas, and firmly abiding by their teachings.
Ten advantages of wearing the prescribed robesthập chủng đức, , thập → 1. the robes exhibit one’s feeling of repentance and shame, 2. they keep the body from heat and cold and keep away mosquitoes, gadflies and poisonous insects; 3. they show the proper manner of a monk, 4. devas and humans pay respect to them just as they worship stupas and temples, 5. they show the mind of detachment, 6. they are in accord with the way of extinction of evil passions, 7. any evil acts can be easily discovered when robes are worn, 8. those wearing the robes do not require any other ornaments, 9. those wearing the robes readily practise the Eightfold Noble Path, and 10. those wearing the robes diligently practise the Way without the impure minds.
Ten benefits→ The ten benefits attending the observance of sila: 1. becoming a Cakravartin always, 2. not losing the mind of diligence when he becomes one, 3. becoming a Shakra always, 4. not losing the mind of diligence when he becomes one, 5. seeking the Buddhist Paths always, 6. always holding fast to the teachings of bodhisattvas, 7. not losing unhindered eloquence, 8. always fulfilling the aspiration to plant various roots of merit, 9. being always praised by Buddhas, bodhisattvas and other sages, and 10. quickly attaining all sorts of wisdom.
Ten Bodhisattva-stages→ Refers to Nagarjuna’s Commentary on the Chapter Ten Stages of the Garland Sutra; this work contains his explanation of the first two stages. in the ninth chapter, Easy Path, he presents an easy way of reaching the Stage of Non-retrogression.
Ten bonds→ → including: shamelessness, unblushing-ness, envy, meanness, regretful-ness, torpidity, unstableness, gloominess, anger and secret sinning.
Ten dark evil acts→ See Ten evil acts.
Ten directions→ North, South. East, West; North-eatern, North-western, South-eastern, South-western, Zenith and Nadir.
ten drel (T)→ See Dependent origination.
Ten elements of virtue, → Same as the ten good acts.
Ten epithets→ The ten epithets of the Buddha: 1. Tathagata, ‘Thus-come’, one who has come from Thusness, 2. Arhat, ‘one worthy of alms-giving’, 3. Samyaksambuddha, ‘fully enlightened’, 4. Vidya-carana-sampanna, ‘one having wisdom and practice’, 5. Sugata, ‘well-gone’, one who has attained emancipation, 6. Lokavid, ‘the knower of the world’, 7. Anuttara, ‘the unsurpassed’, 8. Purusa-damya-sarathi’, ‘the tamer of gods and men’, 9. Shasta devamanusyanam, ‘the teacher of gods and men’, and 10. Buddha-lokanatha, ‘the enlightened and world-honoured one’.
Ten Evil Acts→ Ten Evil Deeds, Ten Sins → 1. Killing; 2.stealing; 3. sexual misconduct; 4. lying; 5. slander; 6. coarse language; 7. empty chatter; 8. covetousness; 9. angry speech; 10. wrong views.
Ten Evil Deeds (S)→ See Ten Evil Acts.
Ten faults→ See Ten evil acts.
Ten fears→ 1. fear of falling into hell, 2. into the realm of animals, 3. into the realm of hungry spirits, 4. fear of poverty, 5. fear of being abused, rebuked or spoken ill of, 6. fear of being covered by evil passions, 7. fear of falling into the stages of a sravaka and a pratyekabuddha, 8. fear of harassment by devas, humans, dragon gods, and other demi-gods, 9. fear of attack by enemy soldiers, poisonous animals or insects, foods and fire, lions, tigers, wolves, and other people, 10. fear of being confused by wrong views. → Mười điều lo sợ.
Ten good acts→ 1. not killing living beings, 2. not stealing, 3. not committing adultery, 4. not telling lies, 5. not uttering harsh words, 6. not uttering words which cause enmity between two or more persons, 7. not engaging in idle talk, 8. not being greedy, 9. not being angry, and 10. not having wrong views.
Ten great vows→ The vows to be made by bodhisattvas who dwell in the First Stage: 1. to revere, make offerings to and serve all Buddhas, 2. to protect and uphold their teachings, 3. to praise and make offerings to them as they appear in the world, become Buddhas and preach the Dharma, 4. to teach and guide sentient beings so that they may attain higher spiritual states, 5. to guide all beings ultimately to the Buddha’s Enlightenment, 6. to incorporate all the teachings and dharmas into the non-dual principle of equality, 7. to remove various evils in order to produce a pure land, 8. to do the same acts of merit with other people without a sense of rivalry, 9. to turn the wheel of the Dharma, remove evil passions of all beings and lead them to establish pure faith in the Dharma, and 10. to manifest attainment of Enlightenment in all the worlds.
Ten minds→ Ten minds to be cultivated in the Second Stage 1. sincere and straight mind, 2. fitness to act, 3. a soft and tender mind, 4. a mind to control sense-organs, 5. tranquillity, 6. a truly wonderful mind, 7. avoiding mixing with people, 8. absence of greed, 9. a delightful mind, and 10. a great mind.
Ten powers→ The ten powers or abilities attributed to a Buddha: 1. distinguishing right from wrong, 2. knowing the karma of all sentient beings of the past, present and future, and their outcome, 3. knowing all forms of meditation, 4. knowing the superior and inferior capacities of sentient beings, 5. knowing what they desir and think, 6. knowing their different levels of existence, 7. knowing the results of various methods of practice, 8. knowing the rransmigratory states of all sentient beings and the courses of karma which they follow, 9. knowing the past lives of all sentient beings and the nirvanic state of non-defilement, and 10. knowing how to destroy all evil passions.
Ten powers of the Buddha→ These are special “miraculous” powers of the Buddha.
Ten precepts→ A Buddhist novice should abstain from the following: (1) killing living beings, (2) stealing, (3) sexual intercourse, (4) telling lies, (5) intoxicating drinks, (6) bodily decoration and perfume, (7) singing and dancing or going to see dances or plays, (8) sleeping in a big bed, (9) eating at wrong times, and (10) keeping money or jewels; cf. precepts for a novice.
Ten sins→ See Ten Evil Acts.
Ten Stages of a Bodhisattva’s Progress→ They are the following: (1) Joy at having overcome former difficulties and at now entering the path to Buddhahood; (2) Freedom from all possible defilement, the stage of purity; (3) The stage of further enlightenment; (4) Glowing wisdom; (5) Mastery of the utmost or final difficulties; (6) The open way of wisdom that is beyond purity and impurity; (7) Proceeding afar, above the concept of “self” in order to save others; (8) Attainment of calm imperturbability; (9) Achievement of the finest discriminatory wisdom; knowing, expediently, where and how to save; possessing the ten powers; (10) Attainment of the fertilizing powers of the Law Cloud.
Ten titles→ Ten epithets → The ten epithets of the Buddha. These are: (1) Tathagata, ‘thus-come,’ one who has come from Thusness or Suchness; (2) Arhat, ‘one worthy of receiving alms’; (3) Samyaksambuddha, ‘fully enlightened’; (4) Vidya-carana-sampanna, ‘one having wisdom and practice’; (5) Sugata, ‘well-gone,’ one who has attained emancipatin; (6) Lokavid, ‘the knower of the world’; (7) Anuttara, ‘the unsurpassed’; (8) Purusa-damya-sarathi, ‘the tamer of men’; (9) Shasta deva-manusyanam, ‘the teacher of gods and men’; (10) Buddha-bhagavat or Buddha-lokanatha, ‘the enlightened and world-honoured one.’.
Ten ultimate ends → The ten ultimate ends which bodhisattvas should seek to explore by making relevant vows: 1. the ultimate nature of sentient beings, 2. of universe, 3. space, 4. the ultimate Dharma-nature, 5. the ultimate nature of Nirvana, 6. of Buddhas, 7. of Buddhas’ wisdom, 8. of all the objects of mind, 9. of the Buddhas’ spheres of activity and wisdoms, and 10. of the evolution of the sentient world, the Dharma and wisdoms.
Ten virtues, → The virtuous modes of behavior, which are the positive counterparts to the Five Precepts.
Tendai (J)→ T’ien-t’ai (C) → See T’ien-t’ai.
Tendai School (C)→ See Tien tai tsung. → ở .
Tendai shū (J)→ See Tendai.
Tendai Tokushō (J)→ See T’ien-T’ai Te-shao.
Tendai-Pure Land master → One who belongs to the Tendai school but holds Pure Land faith, like Genshin.
Tendai-shū (J)→ See Tien tai tsung. → ở .
Tendō Nyojō (J)→ Name of a monk. → Tên một vị sư.
Teng Yin-feng (C) Đặng Ấn Phong → A student of Ma-tsu, 8th century. →của ngài , thế kỷ thứ 8.
Teng yiu feng (C) Đặng An Phong → To impo (J).
Tengyur (T) Ðan Thù tạng → The great Tibetian collection of over 100 works of the commentaries (shastras) of the Buddhist works.
Tennō Dōgo (J)→ See Tien huang Tao wu.
Ten’o Dogo (J)→ See T’ien-huang Tao-wu.
Tenryū (J)→ See Tien lung.
Tenzo kyōkun (J).
Tera (J) Chùa → Temple.
terma (S) → bí điển,tao ngộ Literally, hidden treasure. Works which were hidden by great bodhisattvas and later rediscovered. They might be actual physical texts or they may come from “the sky” as transmissions from the sambhogakaya.
terton (T) bí điển phát kiến sư → A master in the Tibetan tradition who discovers treasures (terma) which are teachings concealed by great masters of the past.
Te-shan Hsuan chieh (C)→ Tokusan Senkan (J), Deshan Xuanjian (C) → (78(1) 867) A student and dharma successor of Lung t’an Ch’ung-hsin → (781-867) và của .
Tesshikaku (J)→ See Tich tsui Chiao.
Tettsū Gikai (J)→ Name of a monk. → Tên một vị sư.
Tevijjā (P), → Three-fold knowledge.
Tevijjā sutta (P).
Tevijjā-vacchagotasuttam (P)→ Name of a sutra. → Tên một .
Thambha (P)→ Obduracy → Chấp → Hypocrisy.
Than (Thai) Thầy → (also “tan”) → Reverend, Venerable.
Thana sutta (P) → Sutra on Courses of Action → Name of a sutra. (AN iV.115)(AN iV.192) → Tên một.
thangka (T), đương ca, đường kha, quyển → Scroll → Hoành → A Tibetan religious scroll.
thek pa (T) Thừa → See Yāna.
Theory of universal Voidness → The Madhyamika view that negates all kinds of existence and even negative propositions.
Theosophy, Thông thiên học.
Thera (P), , thượng lạp, , , tất đề na, tất tha thiết la → Sthavira (P) → → A senior bhikkhu (of ten years or more seniority).
Theragāthā (P)→ Verses of the arahat monks → One of 15 chapterrs in Khuddaka Nikaya, consisting of 1360 verses written by the monks inspired from the way of their living, telling how a number of early monks attained enlightenment. → Một trong 15 tập của , gồm 1360 do các cảm tác từ của mình, nói về các .
Theranāma sutta (P) → Sutra by the Name of Elder (On Solitude) → Name of a sutra. (SN XXi.10) → Tên một.
Theravāda (P)→ The school of the elders → Sthaviravāda (P), neten depa (T) → → One of the two major schools of Buddhism in the early period. The Buddhist tradition, the scriptures of which are recorded in the Pali language; this tradition advocates the Arahant path. → Nghĩa gốc là “đạo của người xưa”. của trường phái còn . Còn gọi là .
Theravada Buddhism, → See Theravada.
Theravada School, trường phái → A school, sometimes called the hinayana, which is the foundation of Buddhism and this school emphasizes the careful examination of mind and its confusion.
Theravadin (P), người theo → Theravada follower → A follower of the Theravada school.
Therigāthā (P)(tăng) kệ → Verses of the arahat nuns → One of 15 chapterrs in Khuddaka Nikaya, written by the nuns inspired from the way of their living, telling how a number of early nuns attained enlightenment. → Một trong 15 tập của , do các cảm tác từ của mình, nói về các .
Thīna (P)→ Sloth.
Thīnamiddha (P)→ Dullness and drowsiness → , → Sloth and torpor. See Styāna-middha-avarana. → , mê ngủ, .
Third Gate → The third of the Five Mindful Practices.
Thirteen contemplations thậppháp → The thirteen contemplations in the Contemplation Sutra, beginning with that of the setting sun and culminating in clear perception of Amida and his two attendant bodhisattvas.
Thirty-seven Limbs of Enlightenment→ → These are: a. the four mindfulnesses; b. the four right efforts; c. the four bases of miraculous powers; d. the five roots; e. the five powers; f. the seven factors of enlightenment; and g. the eightfold noble path.
Thirty-two signs→ These are the thirty-two mythical ‘signs’ appearing on the body of a Buddha when he is born.
Thitassa annatthatta (P) → The transforma-tion of that which endures.
thok may (S)→ See Asaṅga.
Those of the middle and lower stages→ The two kinds of Hinayana sages, i.e. pratyekabuddhas and shravakas.
Thought → Hnh The way we process information, both facts and truths.
Thousand-spoked wheel →One of the 32 physical characteristics of a Buddha; the mark of a wheel on the soles.
Three aspects of each physical characteristic of the Buddha: thể, tướng, dụng → 1. the essence of each characteristic, 2. reward of it, and 3. the karma which has produced it.
Three aspects of Faithtâm: , tâm, nguyện sanh tâm → Also Three Minds; the three aspects of Faith of the Other-Power presented in the Eighteenth Vow: Sincere Mind, Joyful Faith and Desire for Birth.
Three bodies of the Buddha→ Trikāya (S) → 1. Dharmakaya: The Dharma-body, or the “body of reality”, which is formless, unchanging, transcendental, and inconceivable. Synonymous with suchness, or emptiness. 2. Sambhogakaya: the “body of enjoyment”, the celestial body of the Buddha. Personification of eternal perfection in its ultimate sense. it “resides” in the Pure Land and never manifests itself in the mundane world, but only in the celestial spheres, accompanied by enlightened Bodhisattvas. 3. Nirmanakaya: the “incarnated body” of the Buddha. in order to benefit certain sentient beings, a Buddha incarnates himself into an appropriate visible body, such as that of Sakyamuni Buddha.
Three Characteristics: khổ, , không → All conditioned phenomena are unsatisfactory,impermanent and devoid of Self.
Three defilements→ The three evil passions: greed, anger and stupidity.
Three distinct teachings→ The teachings for bodhisattvas, pretyekabuddhas and shravakas; the teachings for bodhisattvas are Mahayana, the Great Vehicle, and those for pratyekabuddhas and shravakas are called Hinayana, the Lesser Vehicle.
Three elements of virtue →, Observance of the precept, samadhi and wisdom,.
Three Evil Paths Ba đường á,→ See “Evil Paths.”.
Three evil realms→ Hell, the realms of hungry spirits and the realm of animals.
Three faults→ 1. hating bodhisattvas, 2. hating their acts, and 3. rejecting Mahayana sutras.
Three gates of emancipation →: không, , The states attained by practising the three samadhis.
Three gates to nirvāṇa→ Gồm: – – cô sắc – .
Three immutables → These are the hinayana, the mahayana, and the vajrayana.
Three impediments → Evil passions and various hindrances connected with meditation, and hindrance concerning all things and matters.
Three indestructibles→ Gồm: – thân bất tận – mạng bất tận – bất tận.
Three insights → The three insights into the nature of dharmas: (1) insight into reality through hearing the sacred sounds, (2) insight into reality by being in accord with it, and (3) insight into the non-arising of all dharmas.
Three Jewels→ Three Precious Ones. Three Treasures → including: Buddha, Dharma and Sangha; sometimes referred to as the Teacher, the Teaching and the Taught.
Three karmas→ The three conditions, inheritances or karmas, of which there are several groups, including the karmas of deeds, words and thoughts.
Three kāyas→ ku sum (T) → There are three bodies of the Buddha: the nirmanakaya, sambhogakaya and dharmakaya. The dharmakaya, also called the “truth body,” is the complete enlightenment or the complete wisdom of the Buddha which is unoriginated wisdom beyond form and manifests in the sambhogakaya and the nirmanakaya. The sambhogakaya, also called the “enjoyment body,” manifests only to bodhisattvas. The nirmanakaya, also called the “emanation body,” manifests in the world and in this context manifests as the Shakyamuni Buddha.
Three kinds of defilements → Evils, karma and blind passions.
Three kinds of sages, → Shravakas, pratyekabuddhas and bodhisattvas.
Three marks of existence → These are the characteristics of impermanent objects and are literally birth, present life, and death. More metaphorically, it means the object has a beginning, it has a solid existence in the present, and it decays or disintegrates into smaller constituents in the future.
Three meritorious actions(nói trong , để làm trợ hạnh ) → Those acts which are conducive to one’s birth in the Pure Land: (1) acts of moral good, (2) observance of the precepts, and (3) acts of Mahayana good.
Three Minds → See three aspects of Faith.
Three minds with which one should practise dānatam → 1. Bodhi-mind, because one pities all sentient beings, 2. keeping the Buddha Dharma close to one’s heart, and 3. not seeking any reward.
Three misconducts committed by those who live in the aranya with a false motivation → 1. lacking in wisdom if one does not practise diligently, 2. liable to have a sexual intercourse upon meeting a woman and thus face the penalty of expulsion from the samgha, and 3. liable to break the precepts and return to secular life.
Three objectives → Three objectives with which one should practise Dana: 1. to learn the Buddha Dharma, 2. to expound the Dharma, and 3. to lead all beings to attain the supreme happiness.
Three pains →, tam thống The three kinds of pain which we experience are: (1) physical and mental pain caused by illness, thirst, hunger, etc., (2) pain of losing something or some living thing one is attached to, and (3) pain caused by vicissitudes of the world.
Three pillars, The.
Three poisons→ duk sum (T) → Three defilements, three hindrances, three covers. → Gồm: tham (desire), sân (anger), si (stupidity).
Three Pure Land sūtras Tịnh Ðộ: kinh Ðà, và → Pure Land Buddhism is based on three basic sutras: a) Amitabha Sutra (or Shorter Amitabha Sutra, or Smaller Sukhavati-Vyuha, or the Sutra of Amida); b) Longer Amitabha Sutra (or Longer Sukhavati-Vyuha, or the Teaching of infinite Life); c) Meditation Sutra (or the Meditation on the Buddha of infinite Life, or the Amitayus Dhyana Sutra).
Three realms, → The three lowest realms, i.e., hell, the realm of hungry spirits and that of animals.The Three Realms are also: form, formlessness, and desire. Human existence is said to be apart of the desire realm.
Three refuges→ Taking refuge and possessing confidence in the Buddha’s Awakening, in his Teaching and in the Sangha of enlightened disciples. → Xem Tisarana.
Three roots · tsa wa sum (T) → These are the lamas, the yidams, and the dharma protectors.
Three samādhis→ Samadhis of emptiness, non-form and non-desire; in these samadhis one realizes that the dharmas are empty and are not to be grasped as objects of perception and desire.
Three supernatural powers, → 1. knowledge of the former lives of oneself and others, 2. ability to know the future destiny of oneself and others, and 3. ability to know all about the miseries of the present life and to remove their root-cause, i.e., evil passions.
Three transcendent knowledges → See transcendent knowledge.
Three treasures→ The Buddha, Dharma and samgha.
Three unwholesome roots→ three conditions that determine the moralquality of unskillful volitional actions, viz. greed (lobha), hate(dosa) and delusion (moha). Sometimes translated in other ways,e.g. lust, ill-will and ignorance. See also kilesa.
Three vehicles→ The yanas of Sravakas, Pratyekabuddhas and Bodhisatt-vas.
Three wholesome roots→ three conditions that determine the moralquality of skillful volitional actions, viz. non-greed, non-hate andnon-delusion.
Three worlds: , , , còn gọi là → The three levels of the state of existence in Samsara: (1) the world of desire, which comprises hell, the realms of hungry spirits, animals, humans and some of the heavens; (2) the world of form, which comprises some higher heavens; and (3) the world of non-form, which consists of supernal heavens.
(T) → 790-858 C.E. He was a king of Tibet and invited great indian saints and yogis to Tibet. He also directed construction of Tibet’s first monastery (Samye Ling).
Thuddhamma (P)→ Một Miến điện.
Thullaccaya (S)→ Thulaccaya (P), Sthulatyaya (S) → , , → Grave offense, the most serious derived offense.
Thūpa (P) Tháp → See Stūpa.
Thūpavaṃsa (S)→ Do Vacissara người , thế kỳ 13, .